- Please see the main article gel electrophoresis for an introduction on the principles of electrophoresis.
There are two large classes of blood proteins: albumin and globulin. They are generally equal in proportion, but albumin is much smaller and lightly negatively charged, leading to an accumulation of albumin on the electrophoretic gel. A small band before albumin represents transthyretin (also named pre-albumin). Some forms of medication or body chemicals can cause their own band, usually small (see, however, paraprotein).
The globulins are classified by their banding pattern (with their main representatives):
- The alpha (α) band consists of two parts, 1 and 2:
- The beta (β) band - transferrin, LDL, complement
- The gamma (γ) band - immunoglobulin (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM). Paraproteins (in multiple myeloma) appear in this band.